An investigation into the roles of ECH and whistler mode waves in the formation of ‘pancake’ electron distributions using data from the CRRES satellite

first_imgElectron pitch angle distributions sharply peaked at 90 degrees pitch angle were first recorded in the energy range 50 eV < E < 500 eV by the GEOS-1 and GEOS-2 spacecraft in 1977/8, from the plasmapause out to geostationary orbit. At the time they were explained as the remnants of pitch angle diffusion driven solely by Electron Cyclotron Harmonic (ECH) waves. Here we use observations by instruments on board the CRRES spacecraft to study these distributions in more detail. The pancake distributions are now seen to develop from injected distributions that are nearly isotropic in velocity space, on a time scale that is greater than 2 hours. The freshly injected distributions are associated with strong ECH and whistler mode waves suggesting that the pancake distributions are likely to be caused by a combination of both wave types. Our results suggest that whistler mode waves play a dominant role in the formation of pancake distributions outside L = 6.0, whereas inside L = 6.0 and, in particular, in the vicinity of the plasmapause, the ECH waves also play a significant role. Consequently both types of waves should be considered in any attempt to explain the diffuse aurora and the variation with L taken into account. (C) 2000 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.last_img read more

Read More →

Barefoot Is Better

first_imgWho do we wear shoes?  It seems obvious; we expect that they help us avoid injuries and provide comfort.  Maybe we should think of the injuries we are getting by wearing them.    The image of the barefoot person is usually of someone poor, deprived, lower-class, hick, unclean, redneck or something else unattractive.  Shoes are a big business.  Within that business, running shoes have become part status symbol, part science.  Those images might change if a study by Daniel Lieberman at Harvard is taken seriously.  PhysOrg summarized his paper in Nature in which he analyzed the physics of runners with and without shoes.  Barefoot runners, he found, strike the ground differently.  Their feet absorb the shock of impact by landing more on the arch and ball of the foot than on the heel.  Shod runners tend to be heel-strikers.  “Most shod runners — more than 75 percent of Americans — heel-strike, experiencing a very large and sudden collision force about 1,000 times per mile run,” the article explained.  That shock travels up into the ankle, shin and legs.  “People who run barefoot, however, tend to land with a springy step towards the middle or front of the foot.”  This gives them a “more compliant, or springy, leg.”  The impact of the heel strike is reduced in good running shoes.  Still, it could lead to repetitive stress injuries.    Lieberman put his runners into an evolutionary landscape, but could not avoid using design terms:The differences between shod and unshod running have evolutionary underpinnings.  For example, says Lieberman, our early Australopith ancestors had less developed arches in their feet.  Homo sapiens, by contrast, has evolved a strong, large arch that we use as a spring when running.    “Our feet were made in part for running,” Lieberman says.  But as he and his co-authors write in Nature: “Humans have engaged in endurance running for millions of years, but the modern running shoe was not invented until the 1970s.  For most of human evolutionary history, runners were either barefoot or wore minimal footwear such as sandals or moccasins with smaller heels and little cushioning.”Lieberman warned that a runner wanting to switch to barefoot running has to ease into it.  It takes a little time to get used to it, but it could be healthy.  “By landing on the middle or front of the foot, barefoot runners have almost no impact collision, much less than most shod runners generate when they heel-strike.  Most people today think barefoot running is dangerous and hurts, but actually you can run barefoot on the world’s hardest surfaces without the slightest discomfort and pain,” he said.  “All you need is a few calluses to avoid roughing up the skin of the foot.  Further, it might be less injurious than the way some people run in shoes.”  He encouraged more research into the health benefits of barefoot running.  For those interested in comparing the two modes, Lieberman and his colleagues have set up a barefoot running website.Most of us are so accustomed to walking in shoes we could not imagine walking around barefoot a good deal of the time, except at the beach or around the pool, but there are a few who prefer it; they amaze the rest of us with how nimbly and painlessly they scamper about on uneven ground, rocks, and all kinds of terrain.  You might be inspired by this story to try easing into some barefoot running, or at least kicking off the shoes a little more often around the house, if your family members will let you.  You may only regret it when stubbing your toe on a chair.  This experiment is also not advised for desert hikers or snow.  When you think about it, though, most cultures throughout history have done pretty well without heavy shoes.    We didn’t need Lieberman’s little evolutionary fairy tale to make this an interesting story.  “Once upon a time, Lucy told her children to grow arches in their feet, and millions of yeas later, they obeyed.”  Nothing in his findings constitutes evidence for evolution; he just assumed it, and weaved a flat-footed tale around it.  Regardless, his work on human endurance running (11/18/2004) remains one of the most interesting “human body” stories we have reported here.    Why must this evidence be forced into evolution?  The real scientific work was all measurement and analysis of design on living runners.  That design involves many integrated systems (circulatory, respiratory, muscular, skeletal, thermoregulatory, endocrine, and more) that could not have evolved in a stepwise manner, if you’ll pardon the pun.  Those who prefer creation explanations will notice that the foot is very well designed for our upright stance, just as ape feet are well designed for their lifestyles partly on the ground and in the trees.  Adam and Eve came complete with all their physical needs (this was, of course, before thorns).  It doesn’t mean that shopping malls with their dozens of shoe stores are unnatural; human creativity and inventiveness is also evidence of our design.  But we should distinguish between needs and desires.  Perhaps some of our inventions are not as good as the original plan.  Will there be barefoot Olympics again some day?(Visited 16 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Read More →

Sadio Mane facing six weeks out with hamstring injury picked on international duty

first_imgLiverpool striker Sadio Mane is facing up to six weeks out of action after picking up a hamstring injury on international duty with Senegal, the Premier League club said on Tuesday.Mane was taken off with a minute remaining in Senegal’s 2-0 World Cup qualifying win over Cape Verde Islands on Saturday.Liverpool said the injury “could keep him out of action for up to six weeks” starting with Saturday’s league game against arch-rivals Manchester United at Anfield.Mane has scored three goals in five Premier League appearances this season and has just returned from a three-match suspension.The speedy forward picked up a red card during the 5-0 loss to Manchester City last month but was back in the starting line-up for the 1-1 draw at Newcastle before the international break.last_img read more

Read More →

22 days agoBellerin says Arsenal ‘hungry’ to improve after thrashing Standard Liege

first_imgAbout the authorFreddie TaylorShare the loveHave your say Bellerin says Arsenal ‘hungry’ to improve after thrashing Standard Liegeby Freddie Taylor22 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveHector Bellerin says Arsenal are “hungry” to improve after a resounding 4-0 win over Standard Liege on Thursday.18-year-old Gabriel Martinelli scored twice and set-up another as Unai Emery’s side stamped their dominance making it two wins from two in the Europa League.”The team had a great performance. It’s a very important win for us,” said Bellerin.”We played 100% and wanted to get more goals. “We wanted to press, the team is hungry, the team wants to win and wants to improve and I am very pleased for the boys.” last_img read more

Read More →

6 days agoBorussia Dortmund coach Favre drops Sancho

first_imgBorussia Dortmund coach Favre drops Sanchoby Paul Vegas6 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveBorussia Dortmund coach Lucien Favre has dropped Jadon Sancho.Favre has axed Sancho after the England starlet returned late from international duty, according to German reports.The 19-year-old former Manchester City winger started for the Three Lions in their shock 2-1 loss to Czech Republic but was then dropped to the bench for the 6-0 win at Bulgaria.But the forward failed to report back to Germany in time and as a result has been punished, Kicker report.Favre has axed Sancho from the squad to face Borussia Monchengladbach this afternoon. About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more

Read More →

Local Government to Employ More Young Persons for Summer

first_img The programme, which is in its second year, will commence on August 9 and employ young persons over a four-week period to conduct an audit of street lights, and to do other tasks. Minister of Local Government and Community Development, Hon. Desmond McKenzie, has announced that there will be an increase in the number of participants employed in the agency’s Youth Summer Employment Programme.The programme, which is in its second year, will commence on August 9 and employ young persons over a four-week period to conduct an audit of street lights, and to do other tasks.Speaking at a local governance conference in Montego Bay, St. James, on July 17, the Minister noted that last year, some 2,500 young people were employed across all the municipalities, and this year the number will be increased to 3,000.“The decision to do the audit while creating employment for the youth has certainly benefited us. Based on the audit that was done last year, we were in a better position to represent our case as a local authority with the Jamaica Public Service Company as it relates to the amount of street lights that are working across the country,” Mr. McKenzie said.He added that in this year’s programme, the summer employees will also assist the local authorities in identifying persons who have trade licences.“This programme will see each councillor having 15 individuals in the respective divisions and mayors will have 25 participants,” the Minister said.Mr. McKenzie pointed out that the findings will be recorded in a database that will provide information for the Ministry and the Municipal Corporations.The summer initiative falls under the Housing, Opportunity, Production and Employment (HOPE) programme, which provides educational and job opportunities for young people, aged 18 to 24, who are not employed or enrolled in a school or programme of training. Speaking at a local governance conference in Montego Bay, St. James, on July 17, the Minister noted that last year, some 2,500 young people were employed across all the municipalities, and this year the number will be increased to 3,000. Story Highlights Minister of Local Government and Community Development, Hon. Desmond McKenzie, has announced that there will be an increase in the number of participants employed in the agency’s Youth Summer Employment Programme.last_img read more

Read More →

2019 Jimmy And Rosalynn Carter Work Project To Head To Nashville

first_imgJust hours after hanging up their tool belts at the completion of the 35th Jimmy & Rosalynn Carter Work Project in Indiana, the former president and first lady announced they will take their work project to Nashville, Tennessee, in October 2019.Jimmy Carter and Rosalynn Carter show off their handiwork at the 2018 Carter Work Project in Indiana“It is such an honor to host a former President of the United States and his wife, especially such a notable couple who have done so much humanitarian work on behalf of affordable homeownership, not just in the United States but around the world,” said Danny Herron, president and CEO of Habitat for Humanity of Greater Nashville. “We are excited about the opportunity to work alongside the Carters, hundreds of volunteers who may be visiting Nashville for the first time and all of the future homeowners.”Country music stars Garth Brooks, Trisha Yearwood and Eric Paslay, as well as talk show host David Letterman swung hammers and raised walls on new Habitat for Humanity homes in St. Joseph County, Indiana, this week.In Indiana, President and Mrs. Carter worked alongside future homeowners and hundreds of volunteers to build 22 new, affordable homes in Mishawaka. With additional construction projects throughout the year, a total of 41 homes will be built, renovated or repaired in Mishawaka and South Bend as part of the 2018 Carter Work Project.“After 35 years, no one would question if President and Mrs. Carter wanted to take a break from the build site. But the words ‘Carter’ and ‘retire’ aren’t even in the same vocabulary,” said Trisha Yearwood, who, with her husband Garth Brooks, has volunteered with Habitat alongside President and Mrs. Carter for over a decade. “Everyone deserves a decent place to live, but not everyone can afford it. That’s true in our town too, which is why we’re so excited to give a big Nashville welcome to the Carters.”“President and Mrs. Carter know the cause of affordable housing is only becoming more urgent, and so we are so grateful they will once again mobilize hundreds of hands and thousands more voices to this cause,” said Jonathan Reckford, CEO of Habitat for Humanity International. “Through the 2019 Carter Work Project, President and Mrs. Carter will shine the light on not only Nashville, but our country’s struggle to address the real challenges facing the families who cannot afford safe and decent housing in their communities.”Since 1984, President and Mrs. Carter have traveled around the world with Habitat to build and improve homes. Their time and efforts help to raise awareness of the critical need for affordable homeownership around the world. For 35 years, President and Mrs. Carter have worked alongside more than 103,000 volunteers in 14 countries to help build, renovate or repair 4,331 homes.Affordable housing is an urgent need in Nashville. According to the latest housing report from the Davidson County mayor’s office, more than 200,000 people living in Nashville cannot afford the cost of housing. Nashville has lost over 20 percent of its affordable housing since 2000.last_img read more

Read More →

Commentary Opposing coaches paint picture of uncertain Ohio State mens basketball

In college basketball, and, perhaps, college sports in general, it’s the coaches from the smaller and less-known schools that are the most candid, and maybe the most truthful, too. It can be interesting and fun to hear a re-telling of the team you pay attention to through the mouth of opposing coaches. For Ohio State men’s basketball, the two coaches to most recently oppose the Buckeyes on the hardwood are the only two that have gotten it correct in their recounting of OSU hoops. The next two coaches after them could complete the picture of Buckeyes basketball in 2012. OSU’s season began with an 82-60 win against the Albany Great Danes. Albany coach Will Brown provided a season’s worth of lavish praise and hyperbole in the game by lauding OSU’s depth as well as starting junior guard Aaron Craft. “My guys go to McDonald’s to eat, they (OSU) have McDonald’s All-Americans coming off the bench,” Brown said of OSU’s depth before moving discussing Craft. “He’s (Craft) going to be in the NBA for 10 years, I’m sure,” Brown said. As the season has gone along, OSU has continued to receive acclaim for its convincing wins. The University of Kansas City-Missouri came to the Schottenstein Center on Nov. 23 and was sent packing with a 91-45 loss. Afterward, UMKC coach Matt Brown simply said that OSU is “a terrific team.” It would be fair to say that OSU was at least a somewhat unknown commodity prior to its first true non-conference test of the year at Duke on Nov. 28. The 73-68 loss at a rowdy Cameron Indoor Stadium was a kind of reassurance that the Buckeyes could hold their own against top competition. Upon returning home, OSU greeted more mediocre teams. The first was Northern Kentucky, another inferior out-of-conference foe that the Buckeyes throttled and in turn had more praise heaped upon them. Following his team’s 70-43 loss, Northern Kentucky coach Dave Bezold said it was a “great experience” for his players to just be on the same floor with the Buckeyes. “It is an absolutely tremendous opportunity for us to play with one of the most historical teams in the country,” Bezold said. “It is a special moment for our kids to be on this floor and play against such a great program.” Relative to other coaches that came to The Schott and were dealt a swift defeat, Savannah State coach Horace Broadnax was calculated in his post game remarks after the Buckeyes beat his Tigers, 85-45 on Wednesday. Broadnax had plenty to say about the game, but what stuck out was that he stopped at saying OSU was decent. That was it, nothing more. In OSU’s next game, all visiting UNC-Asheville did in its 90-72 loss on Saturday was end the Buckeyes’ streak of 14 consecutive non-conference home wins by at least 20 points. By comparison, Duke lost by 22 points last season at The Schott. Asheville coach Eddie Biedenbach also had measured praise for OSU, stating that he thinks fellow Big Ten team Indiana still plays harder than the Buckeyes. “I think Ohio State is one of the top 6 teams in the country, it’s a little early talent wise,” Biedenbach said. “Indiana… I don’t think they’re more talented than Ohio State – I think they play harder.” After seven games, and a flatbed truck’s worth of homage paid to OSU coach Thad Matta’s program by opposing coaches, Broadnax and Biedenbach finally arrived at the accurate depiction of Buckeyes basketball – the jury’s still out about this team. If there is such a thing as a decent, or “blah” No. 7-ranked squad, OSU has to be that, as Broadnax said. And like Biedenbach said, OSU is a top team in the country and in the Big Ten, but, unlike last season’s Final Four team, there appears to be a gulf between America’s very best squads and the Buckeyes. The 2012 Buckeyes haven’t been tested with the frequency of the 2011 team, which played Florida in the second game of the season before hosting Duke in game No. 7. It certainly hasn’t been as successful either: The 2011 Buckeyes won both of those games whereas the 2012 Buckeyes came close at Duke and the team is now receiving only lukewarm praise from coaches of the mid-majors it beats soundly.  Next up is Winthrop, which upset Ohio University this past weekend, and Saturday is OSU’s marquee non-conference home match against Kansas. A win against Kansas changes the trajectory for the Buckeyes, or at least the outside perception of that trajectory.  Two losses in the big non-conference games doesn’t necessarily condemn OSU to a failed season, and certainly doesn’t rule the team out from a deep NCAA Tournament run. However, there was something about the way OSU fought for a win in a tight game against Florida last season, and then the way it cruised past Duke, that seemed to announce its intentions and demand recognition.  Two losses against Duke and Kansas this year? That only seems to demand recognition as a team that isn’t quite ready. So, listen to what Kansas coach Bill Self has to say after Saturday’s game – depending on the outcome and how the game goes down, you’ll likely hear comments that complete the picture of the 2012 Buckeyes. read more

Read More →